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Implementation of Safety Management System

We implement the safety management system (SMS) in accordance with the safety management policy to ensure that the SMS functions smoothly.

Safety Information Gathering and Dissemination

Information Gathering

We gather a wide range of information from reports on unsafe behavior and acts, the flight data analysis program, crew fatigue risk management program and alcohol risk management program, and use it to prevent safety events.

Fatigue Risk Management Program

In order to contribute to the improvement of flight safety and quality, we gather data to manage fatigue-related risks among pilots and cabin crew and take appropriate corrective action based on the gathered data.

(Fatigue Risk Management Policy)

We acknowledge that fatigue is a present symptom in cockpit and cabin crew duties, and therefore, we manage fatigue-related risks and make efforts to mitigate the risks in order to improve flight safety. JAL’s fatigue risk management program applies to all flights operated by the company. It is based on scientific and historical data and is driven by continuous risk management. Fatigue risk management is only possible when the company and crew responsibly fulfill their respective duties.

Dissemination to the Employees

Information that is of importance for preventing recurrence of safety events and for raising safety awareness of our employees is circulated within the company and posted on the “Safety” webpage of JAL’s website. The main media for sharing safety information are as follows:

  • Corporate Safety, an internal document providing the JAL Group's internal safety policy
  • “Safety” webpage of JAL’s website
  • ”Safety” webpage of our intranet
  • Safety magazine ”FLIGHT SAFETY”

“Safety” webpage of JAL’s website

Safety information magazine
(in Japanese only)

Safety Risk Management

The JAL Group manages safety risks through the following step-by-step process, establishes measures to ensure safety, and deals with accidents and events appropriately.

Identify hazard

Utilizing gathered information on unsafe conditions and unsafe events, we identify hazards and real or hidden risk factors with the potential to cause or contribute to an aircraft accident or serious incident. All safety events within the JAL Group are managed and shared in a common JAL Group database (JSD).
We have established an environment that facilitates and encourages reports from staff on unsafe behavior they have experienced or unsafe conditions they have found, and the resulting events (safety events).

Assess risk for Identification of the main risks

We determine the severity of consequences and the probability of occurrence, assess the acceptability of the risk level and examine the need to take action. Multiple risks are prioritized, as necessary, to know which ones are most urgent.
In addition to risk assessment by departments where risks have emerged, the Corporate Safety and Security Division assesses hazards within the Group using ERC to detect potential risks as early as possible.

■ Risk assessment by Event Risk Classification (ERC)

Events are assessed from the viewpoint of the severity of hazardous events and the effectiveness of current control mechanisms (safety barriers) in order to strengthen proactive prevention of accidents. We also monitor the trend of concentration and likelihood of events by scoring the risks and plotting them in each field for a certain period of time. When the cumulative score exceeds the threshold, we identify the safety issue and take mitigation measures, as necessary.

Figure showing the ERC risk assessment matrix

Establish measures

Each department establishes and implements measures to eliminate each hazard so that high priority risks are reduced to a tolerable level.

■ Causal analysis by Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

In order to reduce human error, we analyze not only unsafe behavior but also a wide range of factors such as procedures, working environments and organizational impacts, and take measures against underlying risk factors. We also statistically analyze the identified factors and address potential organizational issues to proactively prevent human error.

Figure showing the basic process of HFACS analysis

Monitor and review

We set up and monitor Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) on risk mitigation measures and assess their effectiveness. If the risk level is determined not to be acceptable, additional measures are established and implemented to ensure that the safety management system functions effectively.

Examples of risks identified by ERC and mitigation measures

【Unsafe Event】
Multiple occurences of falling baggage from the center overhead stowage bins of the B767 during takeoff or landing.

Identify hazard

Investigation revealed that the latch mechanism easily unlocked.

Assess risk

ERC assessment of onboard injuries revealed that the 90 day-cumulative value exceeded the threshold. It was designated a Safety Issue.

Establish measures

・Non-slip tape was installed in the overhead bins.
・Latches were replaced with the improved model.

Monitor and review

No new events reported since then.

【Unsafe Event】
Large wild animals (deer) entered the runway of New Chitose Airport in winter.

Identify hazard

Investigation revealed that the fence was low enough for deer to step over due to accumulated snow in the area where the animals entered.

Assess risk

ERC assessment of aircraft damage and runway excursion rated this event as yellow.

Establish measures

Snow was removed regularly by the airport authority.

Monitor and review

No new events reported since then.

【Unsafe Event】
Multiple occurences of falling baggage from the overhead stowage bins of the A350 during takeoff or landing.

Identify hazard

Investigation revealed that a half-latch condition may occur if the overhead stowage bin door is not properly closed.

Assess risk

ERC assessment of onboard injuries revealed that the 90-day cumulative value exceeded the threshold. It was designated a Safety Issue.

Establish measures

Procedures for cabin attendants to visually and tactually check that the overhead stowage bin door is properly locked were revised.

Monitor and review

No new events reported since then.

【Unsafe Event】
A child aboard a B777 got caught in a Business Class electrical seat when the child touched the seat recline button.

Identify hazard

Investigation revealed that even though the seat is designed to prevent movement of the seat when an object is caught in the seat, the mechanism does not work if the object is small.

Assess risk

As a result of ERC assessment of onboard injuries, it was designated a Safety Issue.

Establish measures

Precautionary information is provided to passengers with a leaflet and by cabin attendants.

Monitor and review

No new events reported since then.

Emergency Response

Procedures for aircraft accidents, serious incidents and affairs are documented in the Aircraft Accident Handling Manual. In the event of an accident or a serious incident, an aircraft accident investigation committee or a serious incident review meeting is organized and causal investigation and review of countermeasures are conducted.
Procedures for other than aircraft accident, serious incidents and affairs are documented in the Risk Management Manual.

Disaster Measures

As natural disasters have become more frequent and severe, affecting social and economic activities including everyday life, it has become imperative for transport business operators to improve their preparedness for disasters to reduce and prevent the spread of damage, maintain business activities and resume operations as quickly as possible. Under these circumstances, the JAL Group has established the JAL Group Disaster Handling Regulations and has built a framework to prevent and reduce damage by strengthening preparedness.

Internal Audits

We conduct internal audits regularly in accordance with the requirements established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) in order to identify areas for improvement in the safety management system and improve safety standards.

Management Review

The Group Safety Enhancement Council reviews policies and plans every year and evaluates and improves the safety management system to ensure that it is functioning effectively.

Management of Change

We have established and implement a Management of Change process to manage risks arising from upsizing and downsizing of organizations, and changes to facilities, systems, processes, and procedures with the probability of affecting safety.

Third-party Assessment

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MLIT)

The JAL Group undertakes audits and assessments conducted by the MLIT. We take necessary countermeasures for their findings or recommendations.

IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA)

IOSA is an international safety audit program designed to ensure that an airline’s SMS is functioning effectively. JAL Group airlines Japan Airlines, Japan Transocean Air and J-AIR are IOSA-registered airlines. IATA member airlines are required to undergo an audit regularly.

Safety Advisory Group

In August 2005, JAL requested five experts with extensive knowledge and experience in human factors, analysis of failures and defects, organizational management and culture, and safety to provide the company with objective advice and recommendations. This external panel of experts, called the Safety Advisory Group, provides a wide range of safety advice and recommendations from a professional perspective, which are used in management and safety operations of the JAL Group.

Members of Safety Advisory Group
Back row, from left, Prof. Haga, Prof. Komatsubara
Front row, from left, Prof. Hatamura, Mr. Yanagida (Chair), Prof. Kamata

Follow-up meeting with management

Education, Training and Safety Awareness

The JAL Group provides education and training according to the role and position of each employee to equip them with the skills, knowledge and abilities necessary for safety-related duties. We also share necessary safety information and conduct Safety Education regularly.

Initiatives based on the Three Actuals Principle

The Three Actuals Principle is a concept advocated by Prof. HATAMURA Yotaro of the Safety Advisory Group that frontline staff can understand the essence of accidents by going to the “actual place,” seeing the “actual object” (parts of remaining aircraft, personal belongings of the victims, etc.) and listening to stories of the “actual people” who experienced the situation at the time of the accident.

JAL Group staff climb the Osutaka Ridge, "the actual place" of the accident, to console the souls of the victims, and see remaining parts of the aircraft and other "actual objects" in the Safety Promotion Center. By watching news videos of the accident and listening to talks from the “actual people,” the JAL Group employees reaffirm the importance of safety from the depths of their mind.

JAL Group Safety Seminar
for New Employees
Safety Promotion Center
Safety Talks: Stories to Pass On to Future Generations
Listening to talks from the “actual people” who experienced the accident

Safety Education

In order to maintain safety, which is the basic foundation for business continuity of the JAL Group, we provide employees with knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for their everyday duties and education to develop employees with a high level of safety awareness.

JAL Group Safety Education

All JAL Group employees receive Safety Education every year to re-evaluate safety associated with their duties and to foster an awareness that safety is the basis for business continuity of the JAL Group.

The 3rd JAL Group Safety Education

The 3rd JAL Group Safety Education

JAL Group Safety Seminar for New Employees

The JAL Group provides a common Group education program for new employees so that they may feel and think about JAL’s past accidents and consider what they each need to do to ensure safety with a sense of ownership. The program includes a visit to the Safety Promotion Center, climbing the Osutaka Ridge to console the souls of the deceased, watching video interviews of people who experienced the accident, and finally, creating a Safety Pledge to put their thoughts into action, thereby increasing our safety layers.

A memorial climb up the Osutaka Ridge

JAL Group Safety Seminar for New Managers

The JAL Group provides education for new managers to renew their awareness of the relationship between their responsibility as organizational leaders and safety. By reviewing past accidents and studying the Three Actuals Principle, they think about the relationship between their duties as manager and their organization, and safety, put their determination into words in their Safety Pledge, and strive to raise and permeate safety awareness throughout the organization.

Safety Promotion Seminar

Safety Promotion Seminars are held for JAL Group employees and staff of contractors.
This is a voluntary seminar, which provides an opportunity to raise safety awareness by visiting the Safety Promotion Center and climbing the Osutaka Ridge.

Praying at Irei-no-Sono Monument

Education on Alcohol Consumption

All JAL Group employees are educated on alcohol consumption every year to review drinking issues of the JAL Group and alcohol-related knowledge, thereby renewing their awareness of safety and building up their self-discipline.

A Safety Culture

A safety culture is an organizational culture and an organization’s shared awareness about safety. The JAL Group is working to foster a safety culture based on lessons learned from the past.

A reporting culture

Reporting hazards is essential to safety management. Therefore, we have introduced a voluntary reporting system to avert emerging safety problems. Even minor human errors are reported and used to establish preventive measures. In 2007, JAL became the first airline in Japan to introduce a non-punitive reporting policy to inform employees that they will not be punished for human errors if the Company deems that they occurred even though every precaution was taken. In this way, we have created an environment to encourage employees to report spontaneously without hesitation.

A culture of decision-making and challenge

The JAL Group aims to achieve sustainable growth and development by adapting to the rapidly changing environment. As it is extremely important from the viewpoint of safety for employees to make decisions within their authority and responsibility, we are reviewing and improving the decision-making process to ensure smooth and prompt decision-making.

A communication culture

The JAL Group is promoting communication and creating opportunities for employees to verbally share information face-toface. An activity has been running since 2006, where employees across divisions meet and revitalize the organization. We also employ “verbal confirmation” as a means of interactive communication to ensure thorough checks and instill this practice in workplaces.

A culture of refining manuals

JAL Group employees strive to understand the true meaning of their work manuals by always asking themselves, "What is this procedure for?" Also, manuals are there to follow but also to change. Therefore, we search for improvements necessary when using the manual and revise manuals together with manufacturers. We have established a framework for periodic inventory both in quality and in quantity.

A culture of thinking from the “second to third person perspective”

In order to encourage JAL Group employees to think from the customer’s perspective, we place importance on the “second to third person perspective,” which combines the third person perspective of thinking from a specialized airline professional and the first and second person perspective of treating customers as if we or our family were the customer.

Initiatives to cultivate a safety culture

Direct communication between employees and management

The JAL Group provides opportunities for top management and executive officers of Flight Operations, Engineering and Maintenance, Cabin Attendants, Airport Operations, Operations, Cargo and Mail, and other production divisions to visit frontlines on a regular basis to communicate directly with our employees. During the Semiannual Safety Campaign and the Year-end and New Year Safety Inspection, executive officers of general managing divisions such as General Affairs, Accounting, Human Resources and IT Planning, as well as production divisions, visit airports in Japan and overseas, and frontlines of Flight Operations, Cabin Attendants, Engineering and Maintenance, Operations, and Cargo and Mail.

Workplace tours by executive officers

Workplace tours by executive officers

Round table meeting between employees and management

Round table meeting between employees and management

Communication Leader Meeting (CLM)

The CLM is a meeting where employees in various occupations and divisions assemble from all over Japan to communicate with each other, create an open corporate culture, promote autonomous activities and strengthen frontline capabilities. This is an initiative to make connections and broaden their outlook by bringing colleagues together to discuss and solve active or latent issues within the JAL Group and find solutions.

CLM Activities Reporting Meeting for Management

CLM Activities Reporting Meeting for Management

Employee recognition awards

The JAL Group presents certificates of commendation to employees with the aim to foster a culture of praise and enhance safety awareness. In the JAL Awards Fortress of Safety category, employees are awarded for such actions as proactively preventing events that affect safe operations by acting in accordance with the Safety Charter or analyzing and reporting irregularities and contributing significantly to sharing knowledge and proactively preventing recurrence.

In addition to the above awards, the Senior Vice President of Corporate Safety and Security presents a Certificate of Appreciation to employees for detecting abnormal situations and proactively preventing trouble.

Certificate of Appreciation Presentation Ceremony

Certificate of Appreciation Presentation Ceremony

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